The low amount of neuropeptides in this ultra-pricey eye cream is disappointing. But perhaps even more disappointing is that there is no research proving that topical application of neuropeptides has any benefit for skin. As noted cosmetic surgeon Dr. Arthur Perry stated, “The molecular size of these peptides is likely too large for them to penetrate skin and reach their target cells”—and that’s assuming these peptides can somehow avoid being broken down by naturally occurring enzymes in the skin.
The association between neuropeptides and skin care doesn’t have much logic behind it. Neuropeptides are composed of short-chain amino acids and are perhaps best known as being key components of the human brain (think endorphins, the feel-good chemicals our brains release after exercise or other pleasurable activities). How these neuropeptides go about firming skin and reducing sagging isn’t explained, nor is there any proof that they reduce dark circles or puffy eyes; but that didn’t stop Perricone from claiming otherwise and hoping that consumers will take a (very expensive) leap of faith.
Beyond the neuropeptide discussion, this is a basic lightweight moisturizer suitable for normal to slightly dry skin anywhere on the face. It contains some great antioxidants, although half of them are present in amounts too low to be of much benefit for your skin.
As with most of Perricone’s anti-aging products, this eye cream contains dimethyl MEA. Also known as DMAE, this ingredient is controversial because research has shown conflicting results. It seems to offer an initial benefit that improves skin, but these results are short-lived and eventually give way to destruction of the substances in skin that help build healthy collagen (Sources: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, November-December 2007, pages 711–718; and American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, Volume 6, 2005, pages 39–47).
Interestingly, there is a formulation challenge when including DMAE in skin-care products. To maintain the efficacy and stability of DMAE, the product’s pH must be at least 10. A pH of 10 is highly alkaline, which isn’t good news for skin because it increases bacteria content in pores, and causes irritation and dryness. Moreover, because almost all moisturizers (including serums and eye creams) are formulated with a pH that closely matches that of human skin (generally 5.5–6.5, which is on the acidic side of the scale), in all likelihood the DMAE included in skin-care products cannot have any prolonged functionality (Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, Supplement 72, 2008, pages S17–S22).
This rich cream is an ideal eye treatment that delivers anti-aging benefits with advanced Neuropeptide technology. Neuropeptide Eye Contour helps to firm sagging and more fragile skin, minimizes the appearance of deep lines and wrinkles and diminishes the appearance of puffy eyes, discoloration and dark circles. Eyes will take on a more youthful and healthy looking appearance.
Water, Butylene Glycol, Glyceryl Polymethacrylate, Isopropyl Palmitate, Glycerin, Lecithin, Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil, Glyceryl Stearate, PEG-100 Stearate, PEG-8, Dimethyl MEA (DMAE), C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate, Dimethicone, Cetyl Alcohol, Thioctic Acid (Alpha-Lipoic Acid), L-Tyrosine, Sodium Carboxymethyl Beta-Glucan, Cetearyl Alcohol, Citric Acid, Phenoxyethanol, Triethanolamine, Caprylyl Glycol, Carbomer, Steareth-20, Ceteareth-20, Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone, Elaeis Guineensis (Palm) Oil, Magnesium Aspartate, Zinc Gluconate, Tocotrienols, Disodium EDTA, BHT, Sorbic Acid, Tocopherol, Copper Gluconate, Cetyl Hydroxyethylcellulose, Sodium Hyaluronate, Rutin, Hydroxysuccinimide, Dipeptide-2 (Neuropeptide), Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 (Neuropeptide), Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (Neuropeptide), Chrysin, Phaseolus Lunatus (Green Bean) Extract
This dermatologist-developed line is perhaps the best known in an increasingly crowded field. The frenzy began with Nicholas Perricone's first book, The Wrinkle Cure, and continued when he appeared on PBS to discuss his book and namesake products, all of which seemed incredibly legitimate to consumers worried about how to look younger longer. PBS reaped a financial windfall from his appearance, netting millions of dollars between 2001 and 2002 (Source: www.quackwatch.org). Originally all the fuss centered around vitamin C and alpha lipoic acid, but as his success continued, Perricone wrote half a dozen more books and expanded his product line to include other over-hyped ingredients, each with claims (and price tags) more inflated than the last round.
We sourced the Web site Quackwatch.org because they have an excellent, unbiased report on the Perricone phenomenon. This non-profit site is operated by consumer advocate Dr. Stephen Barrett, and, to quote the Quackwatch Mission Statement, their purpose is "to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct." That's where Perricone comes into play. According to Quackwatch, Perricone's books "contain many claims that are questionable, controversial, fanciful, unsupported by published evidence, or just plain wrong. Although he mentions standard skin-care treatments, sometimes favorably, his books provide little guidance about when they might be appropriate or sufficient. Although he provides long lists of references, practically none of them directly support what he promises." Those sentiments are exactly what we felt and wrote after reading The Wrinkle Cure.
The site goes on to state: "Perricone's books are sprinkled with statements that his ideas are based on his own research. However, the extent and quality of this research is unclear. A PubMed search for his name brought up only six citations, of which only two appear to be original research, both on topical glycolic acid. His books describe situations in which he tested various ideas in a few patients, usually over a short period of time, but he provides few details and apparently published none of those findings in medical journals." Does that sound like the kind of products you'd like to spend (a lot of) your money on?
They go on to conclude (and we agree completely with the following text): "Dr. Perricone has mixed a pinch of science with a gallon of imagination to create an elaborate, time-consuming, expensive, prescription for a healthy life and younger skin. There is no reason to think his program is more effective than standard measures. Although some of his advice is standard, most of his recommendations are based on speculation and fanciful interpretation of selected medical literature. He makes lots of money by convincing patients and consumers, but he hasn't succeeded in convincing critical thinkers, doctors, scientists, or anyone who wants to see hard evidence. Perricone's prescription isn't science; it's creative salesmanship." And which ingredient is the answer for healthy skin? Perricone can't seem to make up his mind, because one group of products contains alpha lipoic acid, another group olive oil, another vitamin C, and still another neuropeptides. Come on, doctor, which is it?
One ingredient Perricone uses deserves some discussion because it is present in all of his products, and that's dimethyl MEA, also known as DMAE (chemically 2-dimethyl-aminoethanol). DMAE has been around for years as an oral supplement that's popularly believed to improve mental alertness, much like Ginkgo biloba and coenzyme Q10. However, the research about DMAE does not show the same positive results as the other two supplements. Because DMAE is chemically similar to choline, DMAE is thought to stimulate production of acetylcholine. And because acetylcholine is a brain neurotransmitter, it's easy to see how it could be associated with brain function. However, only a handful of studies have looked at DMAE for that purpose and they have not been conclusive in the least, while some have shown that DMAE may be problematic or not very effective (Sources: Mechanisms of Aging and Development, February 1988, pages 129–138; Neuropharmacology, June 1989, pages, 557–561; European Neurology, 1991, pages 423–425; and European Journal of Medical Research, May 2003, pages 183–191).
How does any of this translate into skin care, or, more to the point, suppressing the signs of aging? Perricone claims DMAE restores muscle tone to skin that has lost firmness and has begun to slacken, as well as conveying an antioxidant benefit. Johnson & Johnson uses DMAE in a few of their Neutrogena products, and a study they paid for appeared in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (June 2005, pages 39–47). The conclusion was as follows: "the benefits of DMAE in dermatology include a potential anti-inflammatory effect and a documented increase in skin firmness with possible improvement in underlying facial muscle tone." The study examined topical application of 3% DMAE over a period of 16 weeks, but it was not done double-blind and was not placebo-controlled, which makes the results, at best, questionable. Moreover, the study didn't examine whether a 3% or lower concentration of other ingredients, such as green tea, glycolic acid, vitamin C, or myriad others (many of which Perricone has extolled in his other products, and the amount of DMAE he used varies widely from product to product), might have had the same or better results.
Is there any reason to get excited (and drain your pocketbook) for products with DMAE? Apparently not; a study published in The British Journal of Dermatology (May 2007) has shown contrary evidence that it may actually pose risks for the skin. In vitro tests of the pure substance, as well as creams that contained DMAE, demonstrated a fairly fast and significant increase in protective elements around the skin cell. However, a short time later the researchers observed an important reduction in cell growth and in some cases they found that it halted cell growth altogether. So, while you may initially experience a kind of swelling of the skin because of the expanding effect caused by topical application of DMAE, the long-term results appear to be far from desirable.
Interestingly, even though this ingredient is present throughout Perricone's line, he has yet to publish his own research discussing the claims and explaining how topical DMAE works. The bottom line is that as more research comes to light, DMAE may prove more problematic than helpful for aging skin. But in the meantime, Perricone is raking in lots of money by convincing consumers otherwise.
For more information about Perricone MD Cosmeceuticals call (888) 823-7837 or visit www.perriconemd.com.