Ingredient Dictionary

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vitamin F

Name sometimes used to represent essential fatty acids of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. These... Read More »

Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins, Emollients, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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vitamin B3

See niacinamide

Categories: Vitamins, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Stimulates the growth of blood vessels. Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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tripeptide-32

A synthetic peptide with the "tri" (meaning three) designation referring to this peptide's mix of the amino acids proline, serine, and threonine. Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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tretinoin

Topical, prescription-only medication that can improve skin cell maturation after skin has been... Read More »

Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Prescription Drugs, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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transforming growth factor (TGF)

Stimulates wound healing and collagen growth. Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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Tamarindus indica seed extract

More commonly known as tamarind, the seed extract is used more often for care of the eye itself rather than for skin care. Read More »

Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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subtilisin

Protease enzyme obtained from the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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sphingolipids

Sphingolipids are complex lipids (fats) that function as skin-repairing and conditioning ingredients... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Skin-Identical/Repairing Ingredients

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sirtuins

An acronym for Silent Information Regulator Two proteins. They are a class of proteins thought to... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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retinyl palmitate

Form of vitamin A. It is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. There is... Read More »

Categories: Vitamins, Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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retinol

The name for the entire vitamin A molecule. Retinol has value for skin on several fronts: it is a... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Antioxidants, Vitamins

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retinoids

Large group of over 2,500 chemicals related to vitamin A. Topical, over-the-counter retinoids... Read More »

Categories: Vitamins, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Prescription Drugs

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Retin-A

One of several prescription-only drugs (others include Renova, Retin-A Micro, and Avita) that... Read More »

Categories: Vitamins, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Prescription Drugs

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Renova

See Retin-A , tretinoin

Categories: Vitamins, Prescription Drugs, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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proteases

Enzymes that are part of a process that causes the breakdown of amino acids and proteins in skin... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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prostaglandin analogue

Prostaglandins are a group of potent, hormone-like substances that exist or are synthesized in... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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phytosphingosine

Long-chain, complex fatty alcohol that functions as a water-binding agent and also has preservative... Read More »

Categories: Preservatives, Skin-Identical/Repairing Ingredients, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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phosphatidylcholine

Active ingredient in lecithin. Every cell membrane in the body requires phosphatidylcholine (PC).... Read More »

Categories: Skin-Identical/Repairing Ingredients, Emollients, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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peptides

Peptides are portions of proteins, which are long (or sometimes short) chains of amino acids. In... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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pentapeptides

Pentapeptides are a type of peptide where the peptide has five ("penta") amino acids. There are dozens of pentapeptides used in cosmetic products. Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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palmitoyl tripeptide-5

See cell-communicating ingredients , peptides

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7

A synthetic peptide whose trade name is Matrixyl 3000. It is believed to work by muting the effect... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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palmitoyl pentapeptide 3

Trade name Matrixyl, a fatty acid mixed with amino acids. The only research showing this has any... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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palmitoyl oligopeptide

A blend of palmitic acid (a fatty acid) with several amino acids, including alanine, arginine,... Read More »

Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

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About the Experts

Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books on skin care and makeup. She is known worldwide as the Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paula's Choice. Paula's expertise has led to hundreds of appearances on national and international television including:

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The Paula's Choice Research Team is dedicated to helping you find the absolute best products for your skin, using research-based criteria to review beauty products from an honest, balanced perspective. Each member of the team was personally trained by Paula herself.

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