Can have significant anti-inflammatory and emollient benefits for skin (Sources: Surgeon
, February 2005, pages 7–10; Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology
, January–February 2002, pages 20–25; and Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry
, September 2001, pages 4502–4507). However, whether or not evening primrose oil can mitigate certain symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown. “Trials of evening primrose oil have also had conflicting results; the two most rigorous studies showed no evidence of benefit” (Source: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
, February 2000, pages 3–12).
gamma linolenic acid (GLA)