Extract or oil obtained from the flowering plant Arnica montana. There is research showing that when arnica is taken orally before surgery it reduces inflammation and bruising.  However, in high amounts it is a risk for skin irritation, shown to kill keratinocytes (skin cells) along with negative effects on naturally present antioxidants in skin. [2, 3]
- Seeley B, Denton A, Ahn M, Maas C. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized; double-blind; placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006;8(1):54-9.
- Hofmann U, Priem M, Bartzsch C, Winckler T, Feller K. A sensitive sensor cell line for the detection of oxidative stress responses in cultured human keratinocytes. Sensors (Basel)..2014;14(7):11293-307.
- Hausen B. A 6-year experience with compositae mix.. Am J Contact Dermat.. 1996;7(2):94-9.